Ruby Programming Language | Learn Ruby Programming | Ruby Programming Tutorial | Ruby Programming Programs | Ruby Programming Books | Ruby Programming Examples

Ruby Programming Language | Learn Ruby Programming | Ruby Programming Tutorial | Ruby Programming Programs | Ruby Programming Books | Ruby Programming Examples

Ruby Programming Language | Learn Ruby Programming | Ruby Programming Tutorial | Ruby Programming Programs | Ruby Programming Books | Ruby Programming Examples

Ruby is a dynamic, reflective, object-oriented, general-purpose programming language. It was designed and developed in the mid-1990s by Yukihiro “Matz” Matsumoto in Japan.



According to its creator, Ruby was influenced by Perl, Smalltalk, Eiffel, Ada, and Lisp. It supports multiple programming paradigms, including functional, object-oriented, and imperative. It also has a dynamic type system and automatic memory management.

History of Ruby

Early concept

Ruby was conceived on February 24, 1993. In a 1999 post to the ruby-talk mailing list, Ruby author Yukihiro Matsumoto describes some of his early ideas about the language:

I was talking with my colleague about the possibility of an object-oriented scripting language. I knew Perl (Perl4, not Perl5), but I didn’t like it really, because it had the smell of a toy language (it still has). The object-oriented language seemed very promising. I knew Python then. But I didn’t like it, because I didn’t think it was a true object-oriented language — OO features appeared to be add-on to the language. As a language maniac and OO fan for 15 years, I really wanted a genuine object-oriented, easy-to-use scripting language. I looked for but couldn’t find one. So I decided to make it.

Syntax of Ruby

The syntax of Ruby is broadly similar to that of Perl and Python. Class and method definitions are signaled by keywords, whereas code blocks can be both defined by keywords or braces. In contrast to Perl, variables are not obligatorily prefixed with a sigil. When used, the sigil changes the semantics of scope of the variable. For practical purposes, there is no distinction between expressions and statements.[87][88] Line breaks are significant and taken as the end of a statement; a semicolon may be equivalently used. Unlike Python, indentation is not significant.

Features of Ruby

  • Thoroughly object-oriented with inheritance, mixins, and metaclasses
  • Dynamic typing and duck typing
  • Everything is an expression (even statements) and everything is executed imperatively (even declarations)
    Succinct and flexible syntax[79] that minimizes syntactic noise and serves as a foundation for domain-specific languages
  • Dynamic reflection and alteration of objects to facilitate metaprogramming
  • Lexical closures, iterators, and generators, with a block syntax
  • Literal notation for arrays, hashes, regular expressions and symbols
  • Embedding code in strings (interpolation)
  • Default arguments
  • Four levels of variable scope (global, class, instance, and local) denoted by sigils or the lack thereof
  • Garbage collection
  • First-class continuations



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