Listing File Attributes in Linux | Listing File Attributes | Linux Operating System | Learn Linux System | Linux Examples | Linux Tutorials | Linux Books

Listing File Attributes in Linux | Listing File Attributes | Linux Operating System | Learn Linux System | Linux Examples | Linux Tutorials | Linux Books

Listing File Attributes in Linux | Listing File Attributes | Linux Operating System | Learn Linux System | Linux Examples | Linux Tutorials | Linux Books

$ls guidelines receipt letter more-stuff notes details. All things considered, ls alone won’t list the majority of the documents. Records and catalogs starting with a dab (“.”) are escaped the ls summon however are appeared on the off chance that you utilize

ls – a: % ls – a . .. .indent directions receipt letter notes more-stuff details

The passages for “.” and “..” allude to the present registry and its parent index, individually. The document .indent is a concealed record. In the event that you utilize ls – A rather than ls – a, you’ll see shrouded documents, however “.” and “..” won’t be appeared.

You can get a more point by point posting by utilizing the ls – lF summon:

% ls – lF

add up to 161

– rw-r- – r- – 1 sian client 505 Feb 9 13:19 directions

– rw-r- – r- – 1 sian client 3159 Feb 9 13:14 receipt

– rw-r- – r- – 1 sian client 6318 Feb 9 13:14 letter

– rw – 1 sian client 15897 Feb 9 13:20 more-stuff

– rw-r – 1 sian biochem 4320 Feb 9 13:20 notes

– rwxr-xr-x 1 sian client 122880 Feb 9 13:26 stats*


The principal line of yield created by the ls charge (add up to 161 in the case above) demonstrates the quantity of KBs taken up by the records in the catalog. Each of alternate lines of yield contains the fields, from left to ideal, as portrayed in Table 6-2.

Table 6-2. ls yield

Field substance


The document’s sort; for normal records, this field is dependably a dash


The record’s consents


The quantity of “hard” connections to the record; the quantity of “names” for the document


The name of the document’s proprietor


The name of the record’s gathering


The document’s size, in bytes

Feb 9 13:19

The document’s change time


The document’s name

The ls – F alternative makes it simpler for you to comprehend the posting by printing a unique character after the filename to demonstrate what it is, as appeared in Table 6-3.

Table 6-3. ls – F label implications




Consistent document


Document has the execute bit set, average of executable projects or order records






Representative connection


An entryway, which is an exceptional build in Sun’s Solaris that is at present being developed; utilized for interprocess correspondence


A FIFO (a First-In, First-Out cradle, which is an extraordinary sort of named pipe)


A whiteout[5]

[5] If you have two filesystems mounted in a union filesystem and the upper-layer filesystem has an unfilled catalog, that index will white out the passages in the lower-layer filesystem. This is demonstrated by the “%” whiteout character.

In this manner, in the index demonstrated before, the execute bit of the record details is set; whatever remains of the documents are general documents.

The ls order has many choices. Since various individuals ordinarily get a kick out of the chance to see diverse snippets of data when they list documents, you may wish to peruse the manual page for the ls order that is on your framework and after that set up nom de plumes so you will have these alternatives keep running naturally when you write “ls.” For example, Spaf has a nom de plume “lf” that runs ls with the choices – FA, a false name “ll” that runs ls with the choices – FAl, and “lb” that runs ls with the choices – FAbx (the – b switch demonstrates printable octal portrayals of nonprinting characters, and the – x switch sorts filenames crosswise over lines instead of down segments).

6.2.2 File Times

The circumstances appeared with the ls – l order are the change times of the document substance, every now and again called the record’s mtime. You can acquire the season of last access (the atime) by giving the – u choice (for instance, by writing ls – lu). These circumstances are naturally refreshed by the Unix working framework.

Knowing when a record was last changed or got to can be essential much of the time. For instance, if a man has been utilizing your record, you can take a gander at the mtimes of documents to surmise which documents the individual adjusted. Tragically, the mtime and atime can’t entirely be trusted, in light of the fact that they can be changed by the record’s proprietor or the superuser by calling a capacity (utimes( )) inside the Unix part. This capacity exists with the goal that document programs like tar and unfasten can reestablish a record’s change time notwithstanding its substance. Moreover, the circumstances mirror the framework time at the season of access or adjustment, so if the clock is off base or is changed, the circumstances may not be exact.

Since a document’s mtime and atime can’t be put stock in, framework managers and security experts should be in the propensity for checking the inode change time (ctime) utilizing the ls – c alternative; for instance, ls – lc. Similarly as with the mtime and the atime, the ctime is consequently refreshed by the working system?in this case, at whatever point a change is made to the inode of the document. However, dissimilar to with mtime and atime, unprivileged clients can’t change a record’s ctime. The ctime mirrors the season of last written work, assurance change, or change of proprietor. An aggressor may change the mtime or atime of a record, however the ctime will more often than not be right.

Note that we said “normally.” A sharp assailant who picks up superuser status can change the framework clock and afterward touch the inode to drive a deceptive ctime on a record. Besides, an assailant can change the ctime by keeping in touch with the crude circle gadget and bypassing the working framework checks out and out. What’s more, on the off chance that you are utilizing Linux with the ext2 filesystem, an aggressor can change the inode substance straightforwardly utilizing the debugfs summon.


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